LAB 4: CRANIAL NERVES, BRAINSTEM REFLEXES, ANATOMICAL BASIS OF CONSCIOUSNESS, BRAIN SHIFTS

Student Preparation Guide

Objectives

  • Describe the functional anatomy of cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII.
  • Identify and localize (in the micrographs) the nuclei associated with cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII. Describe the modalities associated with these nuclei.
  • Explain the neuroanatomical pathways associated with brainstem reflexes tested in the conscious and unconscious patient.
  • Identify and localize the pathways associated with the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the eye.
  • Compare and contrast extensor and flexor posturing and the brainstem lesions associated with them.
  • Describe the consequences of herniation syndromes associated with increased intracranial pressure.
  • Describe the location and function of the reticular formation.

Videos

THERE ARE NO VIDEOS FOR THIS LAB

Virtual Patient

Additional Links


Reflexes of the Brainstem

(handwritten tutorial)

Pupillary Light Reflex

(handwritten tutorial)

Corneal Reflex

(handwritten tutorial)

Brainstem Rule of 4

(IMJ clinical tips)

Brainstem Rule of 4

(practical neurology article)
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